Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Jun;42(3):471-482. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1729173. Epub 2021 May 24.
Invasive fungal infections threaten lung transplant outcomes with high associated morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic prophylaxis may be key to prevent posttransplant invasive fungal infections, but cost, adverse effects, and absorption issues are barriers to effective prophylaxis. Trends in fungal infection diagnostic strategies utilize molecular diagnostic methodologies to complement traditional histopathology and culture techniques. While lung transplant recipients are susceptible to a variety of fungal pathogens, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. infections remain the most common. With emerging resistant organisms and multiple novel antifungal agents in the research pipeline, it is likely that treatment strategies will continue to evolve.