J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2021 May 20:S0894-7317(21)00483-1. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2021.05.010. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus which has led to the global Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is known to adversely affect the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms. In this international, multi-center study conducted by the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography (WASE), we aim to determine the clinical and echocardiographic phenotype of acute cardiac disease in COVID-19 patients, to explore phenotypic differences in different geographic regions across the world, and to identify parameters associated with in-hospital mortality.
METHODS: We studied 870 patients with acute COVID-19 infection from 13 medical centers in four world regions (Asia, Europe, United States, Latin America) who had undergone transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs). Clinical and laboratory data were collected, including patient outcomes. Anonymized echocardiograms were analyzed with automated, machine learning-derived algorithms to calculate left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), and LV longitudinal strain (LS). Right-sided echocardiographic parameters that were measured included right ventricular (RV) LS, RV free wall strain (FWS), and RV basal diameter (RVBD). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Significant regional differences were noted in terms of patient co-morbidities, severity of illness, clinical biomarkers, and LV and RV echocardiographic metrics. Overall in-hospital mortality was 21.6%. Parameters associated with mortality in a multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.12 [1.05, 1.22], p = 0.003), previous lung disease (OR 7.32 [1.56, 42.2], p = 0.015), LVLS (OR 1.18 [1.05, 1.36], p = 0.012), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR 6.17 [1.74, 28.7], p = 0.009), and RVFWS (OR 1.14 [1.04, 1.26], p = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: LV dysfunction is noted in approximately 20% and RV dysfunction in approximately 30% of patients with acute COVID-19 illness and portend a poor prognosis. Age at presentation, previous lung disease, LDH, LVLS, and RVFWS were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Regional differences in cardiac phenotype highlight the significant differences in patient acuity as well as echocardiographic utilization in different parts of the world.