Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2021 May 19. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000713. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 impacts multiple organ systems and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathogenesis of viral infection, co-morbidities, medical treatments, and psychosocial factors may contribute to COVID-19 related neuropsychological and psychiatric sequelae. This systematic review aims to synthesize available literature on psychiatric and cognitive characteristics of community-dwelling survivors of COVID-19 infection.
RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-three studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria for review. Emerging findings link COVID-19 to cognitive deficits, particularly attention, executive function, and memory. Psychiatric symptoms occur at high rates in COVID-19 survivors, including anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disruption, and to a lesser extent posttraumatic stress. Symptoms appear to endure, and severity of acute illness is not directly predictive of severity of cognitive or mental health issues. The course of cognitive and psychiatric sequelae is limited by lack of longitudinal data at this time. Although heterogeneity of study design and sociocultural differences limit definitive conclusions, emerging risk factors for psychiatric symptoms include female sex, perceived stigma related to COVID-19, infection of a family member, social isolation, and prior psychiatry history.
SUMMARY: The extant literature elucidates treatment targets for cognitive and psychosocial interventions. Research using longitudinal, prospective study designs is needed to characterize cognitive and psychiatric functioning of COVID-19 survivors over the course of illness and across illness severity. Emphasis on delineating the unique contributions of premorbid functioning, viral infection, co-morbidities, treatments, and psychosocial factors to cognitive and psychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.