Rise of the phoenix: Mucormycosis in COVID-19 times

Link to article at PubMed

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2021 Jun;69(6):1563-1568. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_310_21.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rhino-orbital mucormycosis in times of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

AIMS: The aim of the study was to document cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis seen at our Regional Institute of Ophthalmology during COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) times.

METHODS: The study is a retrospective, institutional cohort, interventional study. It was carried out at our Regional Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2020 to mid-March 2021. All patients of biopsy-proven mucormycosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were subjected to complete history taking, ophthalmological examination, and imaging studies. The patients were treated via a multidisciplinary approach with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and debridement of local necrotic tissue. Exenteration was done when indicated. A minimum 75-day follow-up period was accorded to all study patients. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. A P value ≤0.05 was taken as significant.

RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were seen, with a mean age of 56.3 years. The major risk factors included uncontrolled diabetes (96.7%) and COVID-19 positivity (61.2%), with concomitant steroid use in 61.2% patients. The most common presentation was diminution of vision (<6/60 in 80.64% patients) and ophthalmoplegia (77.4%). The most common imaging findings were orbital cellulitis (61.29%) and pansinusitis (77.4%). Intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was given to all patients for an average 18.93 days. Exenteration was required in (n = 4) 12.9% of cases. Twenty-eight patients recovered and were alive on follow-up. Mortality was seen in three patients. The presence of cerebral involvement and a HbA1c value of ≥8 were found to be significant in the prediction of survival of patients with mucormycosis.

CONCLUSION: We present the largest institutional cohort of rhino-orbital mucormycosis patients during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic era from our unique perspective.

PMID:34011742 | DOI:10.4103/ijo.IJO_310_21

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