Laryngoscope. 2021 May 19. doi: 10.1002/lary.29632. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with COVID-19 has gained increasing attention in the latest studies. Yet, description of acute invasive fungal sinusitis with its management in those patients is still scarce. This study aims to describe this recently increasing clinical entity in relation to COVID-19 patients.
METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Antifungal agents given included amphotericin B, voriconazole and/or posaconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month.
RESULTS: A total of 36 patients with a mean age of 52.92 ± 11.30 years old were included. Most common associated disease was diabetes mellitus (27.8%). Mycological analysis revealed infection with Mucor and Aspergillus species in 77.8% and 30.6% of patients, respectively. Sino-nasal, orbital, cerebral and palatine involvement was found in 100%, 80.6%, 27.8% and 33.3% of patients, respectively. The most common reported symptoms and signs are facial pain (75%), facial numbness (66.7%), ophthalmoplegia and visual loss (63.9%). All patients were treated simultaneously by surgical debridement with antifungal medications except for two patients with PCR positive swab for COVID-19. These two patients received antifungal therapy alone. Overall survival rate was 63.89% (23/36).
CONCLUSION: Clinical suspicion of acute invasive fungal sinusitis among COVID-19 patients and early management with antifungal therapy and surgical debridement is essential for better outcomes and higher survival.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.