Matter. 2021 May 9. doi: 10.1016/j.matt.2021.05.003. Online ahead of print.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has killed over 3 million people worldwide. Despite the urgency of the current pandemic, most available diagnostic methods for COVID-19 use RT-PCR to detect nucleic acid sequences specific to SARS-CoV-2. These tests are limited by their requirement of large laboratory space, high reagent costs, multistep sample preparations, and the potential for cross-contamination. Moreover, results usually take hours to days to become available. Therefore, fast, reliable, inexpensive, and scalable point-of-care diagnostics are urgently needed. Here, we describe RAPID 1.0, a simple, handheld, and highly sensitive miniaturized biosensor modified with human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) that can detect SARS-CoV-2 using 10 μL of sample within 4 minutes through its increased resistance to charge transfer of a redox probe measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of RAPID for nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab and saliva samples are 85.3% and 100% and 100% and 86.5%, respectively.