Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1318:343-353. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_20.
Neurological manifestations of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are reported to occur in as much as 37% of the affected patients. These manifestations range from headache and dizziness to altered mental status and consciousness, anosmia, ageusia, sensory disturbances, and stroke. The mechanisms by which the neurological symptoms arise are not yet determined but may either proceed as an indirect consequence of systemic hyperinflammation or result from the direct invasion of the virus to neural and glial cells. The neural invasion can explain both the retrograde pathway of encephalitis and the early manifestation of anosmia by invading the olfactory bulb. Moreover, in the case of attacking the brain stem, it may take part in the early apnea manifestation reported by patients. Additionally, neurotropism of the virus could be the cause of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis. Hyperinflammation can have acute and prolonged effects in the nervous system, such as acute demyelination and predisposition to multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory state contributes to hypercoagulation, which in turn could result in cerebrovascular injuries in COVID-19 patients. This chapter would discuss that the neurologic manifestations of the COVID-19 are to be looked at as a multifactorial entangled phenomenon.