Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1318:179-196. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_11.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third coronavirus causing an outbreak in the twenty-first century. It is related to a contagious coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which its high pace of spreading allowed it to lie to the whole world and be turned into a pandemic only a few months after the identification of the first case. Currently, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test of throat swap is the gold standard of diagnosis; however, several studies have reported false-negative results with non-ideal sensitivity. Because this pandemic constitutes a significant burden on global healthcare systems and due to the high transmission rate of the virus, an accurate diagnosis algorithm is needed to reduce the missing case number. A comprehensive clinical examination and taking a history of all systems (not just limited to the respiratory system) combined with hematologic laboratory tests and chest imaging can lead to a sensitive diagnosis, severity assessment, and RT-PCT test interpretation. This chapter focuses on clinical characteristics, hematologic laboratory, and chest imaging features in COVID-19.