Dig Dis Sci. 2021 May 1. doi: 10.1007/s10620-021-07011-4. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (VUGIB) is a common and potentially lethal complication of cirrhosis. Population-based data regarding hospital readmission and other outcomes in VUGIB are limited.
AIM: In a large United States database of patients with VUGIB, we evaluated readmission rates, mortality rates, healthcare resource consumption, and identified predictors of readmission.
METHODS: The 2017 Nationwide Readmission Database using ICD-10 codes was used to identify all adult patients admitted for VUGIB. Primary outcomes were 30- and 90-day readmission rates. Secondary outcomes included mortality, healthcare resource consumption, and predictors of readmission. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders.
RESULTS: In 2017, there were 26,498 patients with VUGIB discharged from their index hospitalization, and 24.7% were readmitted (all-cause) within 30-days and 41.5% within 90-days. Recurrent VUGIB accounted for 26.7% and 28.9% of 30- and 90-day readmissions, respectively. Compared to index admissions, 30-day readmissions were associated with higher mortality (4.3% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.01), increased mean hospital length of stay (5.6 days vs. 4.5 days, p < 0.01), and charges ($65,984 vs. $53,784, p < 0.01), with similar findings in 90-day readmissions. Factors associated with 30-day readmission included end-stage renal disease (HR 1.2, p < 0.05), chronic kidney disease (HR 1.31, p < 0.01), and acute kidney injury (HR 1.14, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Based on a nationwide cohort of hospitalized VUGIB patients, 25% were readmitted within 30-days and 42% within 90-days. Readmission was associated with increased mortality and healthcare consumption compared to the index admission. Additionally, acute and chronic renal injury were predictors of patients at high-risk for readmission.