Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Apr 17;97:107686. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107686. Online ahead of print.
The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is having a disastrous impact on global health. Recently, several studies examined the potential of vitamin D to reduce the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating the immune system. Indeed, vitamin D has been found to boost the innate immune system and stimulate the adaptive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update of the immunological mechanisms underlying the positive effects of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as a thorough survey of the recent epidemiological studies and clinical trials that tested vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19 infection. We believe that a better understanding of the histopathology and immunopathology of the disease as well as the mechanism of vitamin D effects on COVID-19 severity will ultimately pave the way for a more effective prevention and control of this global pandemic.