Am J Kidney Dis. 2021 Apr 21:S0272-6386(21)00471-6. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.12.022. Online ahead of print.
An estimated 8% to 16% of the world's population has chronic kidney disease, defined by low glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria. Progression of chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse outcomes, including incident kidney failure with replacement therapy, accelerated cardiovascular disease, disability, and mortality. Therefore, slowing kidney function decline is paramount in the management of a patient with chronic kidney disease. Ascertaining the cause of kidney disease is an important first step and may compel specific therapies. Effective approaches that apply to the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease include the optimization of blood pressure and blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, particularly if albuminuria is present. Recent studies suggest that sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are highly effective treatments in patients with diabetes and/or albuminuria. For patients with type 2 diabetes, glycemic control is important in preventing the development of microvascular complications, and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists may help reduce albuminuria levels. Other strategies include correcting metabolic acidosis, maintaining ideal body weight, following diets that are low in sodium and animal protein, and avoiding potential nephrotoxins such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, proton-pump inhibitors, and iodinated contrast.