Am J Ther. 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001351. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) may develop in systolic heart failure or after acute myocardial infarction. The current recommendations support the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of LVT. Limited data exist regarding the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with LVT. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of DOACs versus VKAs for LVT.
METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases through November 2020 for all studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of DOACs versus VKAs in patients with LVT. The primary outcomes were LVT resolution, overall thromboembolic events, and thromboembolic stroke. The secondary outcomes were major bleeding and all-cause mortality. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by the Mantel-Haenszel method within a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 statistic.
RESULTS: A total of 11 studies including 2153 patients with LVT on anticoagulation (570 on DOACs vs. 1583 on VKAs) were included. LVT resolution was significantly higher in DOACs compared with VKAs [RR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04-1.35); P = 0.01, I2 = 25%]. However, no significant difference existed between DOACs and VKAs regarding overall thromboembolic events [RR: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.75-1.62); P = 0.61, I2 = 0%] and thromboembolic stroke [RR: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.39-1.02); P = 0.06, I2 = 0%]. Major bleeding [RR: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.66-1.51); P = 0.99, I2 = 4%] and all-cause mortality [RR: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50-1.43); P = 0.53, I2 = 0%] were similar between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: DOACs seem to be more efficacious in achieving LVT resolution compared with VKAs. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings.