Gerontology. 2021 Apr 14:1-14. doi: 10.1159/000515159. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: The oldest-old population (80 years or older) has the highest lethality from COVID-19. There is little information on the clinical presentation and specific prognostic factors for this group. This trial evaluated the clinical presentation and prognostic factors of severe disease and mortality in the oldest-old population.
METHODS: This is an ambispective cohort study of oldest-old patients hospitalized for respiratory infection associated with COVID-19 and with a positive test by RT-PCR. The clinical presentation and the factors associated with severe disease and mortality were evaluated (logistic regression). All patients were followed up until discharge or death.
RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (59.2% female) were included. The most frequent symptoms were fever (68.9%), dyspnoea (60.2%), and cough (39.8%), and 11.7% presented confusion. Fifty-nine patients (57.3%) presented severe disease, and 59 died, with 43 patients (41.7%) presenting both of these. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-0.73, p 0.0074) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.21-5.37, p 0.0139) were associated with severe disease, and serum sodium was associated with mortality (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.18-8.26, p 0.0222). No chronic disease or pharmacological treatment was associated with worse outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The typical presenting symptoms of respiratory infection in COVID-19 are less frequent in the oldest-old population. Male sex and LDH level are associated with severe disease, and the serum sodium level is associated with mortality in this population.