Clin Liver Dis. 2021 May;25(2):345-356. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.
Variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is associated with high mortality if not adequately managed. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding with adequate resuscitation maneuvers, restrictive transfusion policy, antibiotic prophylaxis, pharmacologic therapy, and endoscopic therapy is highly effective at controlling bleeding and preventing death. There is a subgroup of high-risk cirrhotic patients in whom this strategy fails, however, and who have a high-mortality rate. Placing a preemptive transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in these high-risk patients, as soon as possible after admission, to achieve early control of bleeding has proved not only to control bleeding but also to improve survival.