Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7792. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-85906-y.
SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of thrombosis by different mechanisms not fully characterized. Although still debated, an increase in D-dimer has been proposed as a first-line hemostasis test associated with thromboembolic risk and unfavorable prognosis. We aim to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the association between thrombin generation parameters and the inflammatory and hypercoagulable state, as well as their prognostic value in COVID-19 patients. A total of 127 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, 24 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2-negative pneumonia and 12 healthy subjects were included. Clinical characteristics, thrombin generation triggered by tissue factor with and without soluble thrombomodulin, and also by silica, as well as other biochemical parameters were assessed. Despite the frequent use of heparin, COVID-19 patients had similar thrombin generation to healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, the thrombin generation lag-time positively correlated with markers of cell lysis (LDH), inflammation (CRP, IL-6) and coagulation (D-dimer), while the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) inversely correlated with D-dimer and LDH, and positively correlated with fibrinogen levels. Patients with more prolonged lag-time and decreased ETP had higher peak ISTH-DIC scores, and had more severe disease (vascular events and death). The ROC curve and Kaplan Meier estimate indicated that the D-dimer/ETP ratio was associated with in-hospital mortality (HR 2.5; p = 0.006), and with the occurrence of major adverse events (composite end-point of vascular events and death) (HR 2.38; p = 0.004). The thrombin generation ETP and lag-time variables correlate with thromboinflammatory markers, and the D-dimer/ETP ratio can predict major adverse events in COVID-19.