J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2020.8948. Online ahead of print.
Background: To investigate sex differences in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in a large Illinois-based cohort. Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study compared males versus females with COVID-19 infections from March 1, 2020, to June 21, 2020, in the Rush University System. We analyzed sex differences in rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, vasopressor use, endotracheal intubation, and death in this cohort. A multivariable model correcting for age and sum of comorbidities was used to explore associations between sex and COVID-19-related outcomes. Results: There were 8108 positive COVID-19 patients-4300 (53.0%) females and 3808 (47.0%) males. Males had higher rates of hospitalization (19% vs. 13%; p < 0.001), ICU transfer (8% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), vasopressor support (4% vs. 2%; p < 0.001), and endotracheal intubation (5% vs. 2%; p < 0.001). Of those who died, 92 were males and 64 were females (2% vs. 1%; p = 0.003). A multivariable model correcting for age and sum of comorbidities showed a significant association between male sex and mortality in the total cohort (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.90; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Male sex was independently associated with death, hospitalization, ICU admissions, and need for vasopressors or endotracheal intubation, after correction for important covariates.