Cureus. 2021 Feb 25;13(2):e13546. doi: 10.7759/cureus.13546.
Background The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and pandemic disease with a variable mode of action. Patients with underlying illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and other diseases are more prone to infection. An understanding of the different comorbidities that place patients at the highest risk of COVID-19 pneumonia and other fatal complications associated with COVID-19 is necessary for healthcare professionals. This study aimed to determine the frequency of different comorbid illnesses among COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who required admission for the care of their symptoms were included in this observational, cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to July 30, 2020. The patients were treated at a specialized COVID-19 isolation ward built at the Dow University of Health Sciences at the Ojha campus. The patients were referred from the emergency department, medical and allied wards, and COVID-19 screening units. A detailed history and clinical examination were performed, and comorbidities were evaluated. Results A total of 212 patients were admitted during the study with a mean age of 52 ± 16 years. The study population consisted of 120 (56.6%) males and 92 (43.39%) females, and the most common comorbidities were uncontrolled diabetes with hypertension (n = 56; 26.4%), controlled diabetes (n = 22; 10.37%), obstructive airway disease (n = 16; 7.5%), and interstitial lung disease (n = 14; 6.6%). A total of 48 (22.64%) patients had no comorbidities. Conclusions Most COVID-19-positive patients with pneumonia were male, and common comorbidities included uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, and obstructive and restrictive lung disease. The presence of comorbidities was associated with a marked increase in the risk of morbidity and mortality. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.