Semin Dial. 2021 Apr 5. doi: 10.1111/sdi.12967. Online ahead of print.
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an extracorporeal blood purification therapy that aims to support kidney function over an extended period of time. One of the main objectives of CRRT is the removal of excess fluid and solutes retained as a consequence of acute kidney injury. Because prescription of CRRT requires goals to be set with regard to the rate and extent of solute and fluid removal, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism by which solute and fluid removal occurs during CRRT is essential. Basic mechanisms of fluid transport and solute removal (ultrafiltration, diffusion, convection, and adsorption) and the factors influencing these processes in CRRT are described. From the combination of the different transport mechanisms, a number of CRRT modalities are identified and described. Finally, these principles are applied to provide a brief overview of the concept of effluent-based CRRT dose.