J Vasc Access. 2021 Apr 5:11297298211007720. doi: 10.1177/11297298211007720. Online ahead of print.
The number of people worldwide living with end-stage renal disease is increasing. Arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred method of vascular access in patients who will require hemodialysis. As the number of patients with arteriovenous fistulas grows, the role of physicians who intervene who maintain and salvage these fistulas will grow in importance. This review aims to familiarize practitioners with the rationale for arteriovenous fistula creation, the detection of fistula dysfunction, and the state of the art on fistula maintenance and preservation. Current controversies are briefly reviewed.