Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Serology persistence over time in COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma Donors

Link to article at PubMed

medRxiv. 2021 Mar 10:2021.03.08.21253093. doi: 10.1101/2021.03.08.21253093. Preprint.


BACKGROUND: Characterizing the kinetics of the antibody response to SARS□CoV□2 is of critical importance to developing strategies that may mitigate the public health burden of COVID-19. We sought to determine how circulating antibody levels change over time following natural infection.

METHODS/MATERIALS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal analysis of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors at multiple time points over a 9-month period. At each study visit, subjects either donated plasma or only had study samples drawn. In all cases, anti-SARS-CoV-2 donor testing was performed using semi-quantitative chemiluminescent immunoassays (ChLIA) targeting subunit 1 (S1) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, and an in-house fluorescence reduction neutralization assay (FRNA).

RESULTS: From April to November 2020 we enrolled 202 donors, mean age 47.3 ±14.7 years, 55% female, 75% Caucasian. Most donors reported a mild clinical course (91%, n=171) without hospitalization. One hundred and five (105) (52%) donors presented for repeat visits with a median 42 (12-163) days between visits. The final visit occurred at a median 160 (53-273) days post-symptom resolution. Total anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab), SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 97.5%, 91.1%, and 74% of donors respectively at initial presentation. Neutralizing Ab titers based on FRNA 50 were positively associated with mean IgG levels (p = <0.0001). Mean IgG levels and neutralizing titers were positively associated with COVID-19 severity, increased donor age and BMI (p=0.0006 and p=0.0028, p=0.0083 and p=0.0363, (p=0.0008 and p=0.0018, respectively). Over the course of repeat visits, IgG decreased in 74.1% of donors; FRNA 50 decreased in 44.4% and remained unchanged in 33.3% of repeat donors. A weak negative correlation was observed between total Ab levels and number of days post-symptom recovery (r = 0.09).

CONCLUSION: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were identified in 97% of convalescent donors at initial presentation. In a cohort that largely did not require hospitalization. IgG and neutralizing antibodies were positively correlated with age, BMI and clinical severity, and persisted for up to 9 months post-recovery from natural infection. On repeat presentation, IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 levels decreased in 56% of repeat donors. Overall, these data suggest that CP donors possess a wide range of IgG and neutralizing antibody levels that are proportionally distributed across demographics, with the exception of age, BMI and clinical severity.

PMID:33758897 | PMC:PMC7987056 | DOI:10.1101/2021.03.08.21253093

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