Crit Care Clin. 2021 Apr;37(2):385-398. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2020.11.012.
Biomarkers have become a pillar of precision medicine in acute kidney injury (AKI). Traditional markers for diagnosis of AKI are insensitive and insufficient to provide comprehensive information for prognostication. Several emerging biomarkers have shown promising results in large-scale clinical studies. These novel markers likely will be beneficial for personalized AKI prevention and treatment.