Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000733. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is a well-recognized entity. When patients with CCM encounter challenges such as liver transplantation, overt cardiac dysfunction manifests, leading to morbidity and mortality. Although revised diagnostic criteria for CCM have recently been proposed, these still need to be validated.
RECENT FINDINGS: Previous reviews have summarized the mechanisms of CCM, such as abnormalities of the β-adrenergic pathway, cardiac plasma membrane biophysical and biochemical properties, and electrophysiological changes. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress also play important roles. The present review details further mechanisms of CCM, which include myosin heavy chain isoform shifts and abnormalities in cellular calcium transients. Additionally, we review recent studies on therapeutic strategies. Recent work underscores the importance of CCM in the natural history of the immediate and medium-term postoperative period after liver transplantation. Appropriate management strategies for CCM remain the area of greatest unmet need, requiring much further research.
SUMMARY: CCM is a clinically relevant syndrome affecting patients with cirrhosis, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. New diagnostic criteria have been recently proposed by an expert working group. The pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely clarified and optimal management strategies need much further study.