Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome in Hospitalized Patients With Cirrhosis: Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS)

Link to article at PubMed

J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 18. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001529. Online ahead of print.


GOAL: Characterize prevalence of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

BACKGROUND: ODS is a serious complication of rapid serum sodium correction. Patients with cirrhosis experience labile sodium levels related to portal hypertension and diuretic use, often with rapid correction-intentional or unintentional-during hospitalizations.

STUDY: We used validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify inpatients 18 years and older with cirrhosis from the 2009-2013 National Inpatient Sample, excluding those with liver transplantation during hospitalization. The primary outcome was ODS (ICD-9 341.8). Baveno IV defined decompensated cirrhosis (stages 3 and 4); Charlson Comorbidity Index identified severe comorbid illness (score >3). Logistic regression modeled factors associated with ODS.

RESULTS: Of 547,544 adult inpatients with cirrhosis, 94 (0.02%) had ODS. Inpatients with versus without ODS were younger (54 vs. 57 y, P=0.0001), and more likely to have alcohol-related cirrhosis (58% vs. 33%, P<0.0001). ODS did not associate with decompensated cirrhosis (33% vs. 37%, P=0.43), specific complications (ascites 33% vs. 33%, P=0.97; hepatic encephalopathy 24% vs. 17%, P=0.06), or severe comorbid illness (12% vs. 16%, P=0.24). In both univariable and multivariable analysis, age [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-0.99], female gender (ORadj: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30), Hispanic race (ORadj: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ORadj: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.71-4.09), and congestive heart failure (ORadj: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.95) significantly associated with ODS.

CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, ODS is extremely rare, and associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis, younger age, and female gender. ODS is not associated with liver disease severity, specific complications including ascites, or comorbid disease.

PMID:33731600 | DOI:10.1097/MCG.0000000000001529

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