Evaluation of Delirium in Critically Ill Patients Prescribed Melatonin or Ramelteon

Link to article at PubMed

Ann Pharmacother. 2021 Mar 14:10600280211002054. doi: 10.1177/10600280211002054. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An impaired sleep-wake cycle may be one factor that affects the development of delirium in critically ill patients. Several small studies suggest that exogenous melatonin or ramelteon may decrease the incidence and/or duration of delirium.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of prophylactic administration of melatonin, ramelteon, or no melatonin receptor agonist on the development of delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU).

METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study of nondelirious patients in the ICU who received melatonin, ramelteon, or no melatonin receptor agonist. The primary end point was the incidence of delirium. Secondary end points included assessments of daily level of sedation and daily utilization of antipsychotic, sedative, and opioid agents.

RESULTS: No difference was observed in the incidence of delirium among the melatonin, ramelteon, and placebo cohorts (18.7% vs 14.3% vs 13.8%; P = 0.77). A difference was observed in the rate of agitation and sedation among the 3 groups, with the greatest observed in the melatonin cohort. Additionally, there was a difference in the use of propofol, dexmedetomidine, and opioids. Overall, there was no difference in clinical outcomes, including duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU or hospital length of stay.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Therapy with melatonin, ramelteon, and no melatonin receptor agonist resulted in similar rates of delirium in a mixed ICU population. Despite significant differences in agitation, sedation, and medication utilization, there was no differences in the clinical outcomes evaluated.

PMID:33715466 | DOI:10.1177/10600280211002054

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