Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Mar 10:108744. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108744. Online ahead of print.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus that can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly if it is diagnosed late and not treated appropriately. The management of DKA includes careful clinical evaluation, correction of metabolic abnormalities with intravenous fluids, insulin and electrolyte replacement with frequent monitoring of the patients' clinical and laboratory findings and also identification and treatment of the precipitating condition. There are special populations where features, management and outcome may differ from the usual patient with diabetes. Data on management of DKA in such special populations such as chronic kidney disease and pregnancy are sparse and recommendations are based mainly on small case series and expert opinion. Clinicians need to recognize and manage euglycaemic DKA in patients prescribed sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors. DKA is particularly a major health concern due to high rates of hospital admissions and mortality in resource-limited settings due to financial constraints, limiting the adequate provision of insulin and access to health care systems, and dysfunctional health systems. We review the challenges of diagnosis and management of DKA in these specific groups and provide recommendations on optimal patient care.