Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 9. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04210-9. Online ahead of print.
Time to blood culture positivity (TTP) is an indirect measure of bacterial concentration in blood. A short TTP has been linked to the presence of infective endocarditis (IE) and to poor prognosis in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We analyze factors influencing TTP in bacteremia with Enterococcus faecalis. This retrospective observational study of medical records included adults diagnosed with monomicrobial E. faecalis bacteremia between 2015 and 2018 in the Skåne region (Sweden). For each episode, the shortest TTP was recorded. Median TTP was compared between patients grouped based on age, sex, comorbidity, site of acquisition, and focus of infection. Using a dichotomized TTP (shorter or longer than 12 h), a multivariable logistic regression for factors associated to TTP was performed. The association between TTP and IE or mortality was evaluated. Three hundred sixty-seven episodes with monomicrobial E. faecalis bacteremia with the corresponding TTP were identified. Median TTP for the entire cohort was 11.6 (IQR 9.9-14.1) h and a significantly shorter TTP was noted for episodes which represented IE (n = 55, 9.4 (IQR 6.4-10.6) h). Only IE remained associated with a short TTP (≤ 12 h) in binary logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with IE were investigated and TTP was associated with IE also when adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, and nosocomial acquisition. There was no association between TTP and mortality. A low TTP is associated with IE in E. faecalis bacteremia and could be used as a help in determining the need for echocardiography in patients with this condition.