J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 Mar 4:1078155221998735. doi: 10.1177/1078155221998735. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) treatment duration on CDI recurrence in hematology/oncology patients receiving concurrent non-CDI antibiotics.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multi-site, retrospective study examined hematology/oncology patients age ≥18 years hospitalized with active CDI who received ≥1 dose of concurrent non-CDI antibiotics between September 2013 and June 2019. All patients were classified by two definitions for statistical analysis: standard (10-14 days) versus prolonged (>14 days) duration of CDI treatment and non-extended (≤24 hours after stopping non-CDI antibiotics) versus extended (>24 hours after stopping non-CDI antibiotics) CDI treatment. Primary outcome was CDI recurrence within 180 days of completing CDI treatment. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay (LOS) as well as mortality and incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections at 180 days.
RESULTS: Of the 198 patients included, 112 were classified as prolonged versus 86 standard duration and 138 were classified as extended versus 60 non-extended duration. After accounting for demographic differences, no difference existed in the primary outcome of CDI recurrence in either prolonged versus standard or extended versus non-extended analysis (all p > 0.05). Patients who received prolonged versus standard CDI treatment had longer LOS (p < 0.0001) while no difference existed in extended versus non-extended (p > 0.05). No difference in mortality existed in prolonged versus standard (p > 0.05) while those who received extended versus non-extended CDI treatment had significantly lower mortality (p = 0.0008).
CONCLUSIONS: Neither prolonging CDI treatment beyond standard duration nor extending duration beyond end of non-CDI antibiotics was associated with decreased CDI recurrence rate.