Circ Heart Fail. 2021 Mar 5:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007048. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007048. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We sought to elucidate the effect of empagliflozin as an add-on therapy on decongestion and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure.
METHODS: The study was terminated early due to COVID-19 pandemic. We enrolled 59 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either empagliflozin add-on (n=30) or conventional glucose-lowering therapy (n=29). We performed laboratory tests at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after randomization. Percent change in plasma volume between admission and subsequent time points was calculated using the Strauss formula.
RESULTS: There were no significant baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction and serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hematocrit, or serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups. Seven days after randomization, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.040), and hemoconcentration (≥3% absolute increase in hematocrit) was more frequently observed in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.020). The decrease in percent change in plasma volume between baseline and subsequent time points was significantly larger in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group 7 days after randomization (P=0.017). The incidence of worsening renal function (an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis, empagliflozin achieved effective decongestion without an increased risk of worsening renal function as an add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes with acute decompensated heart failure.
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