Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1321:115-126. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_10.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly pathogenic with relatively high mortality and morbidity. In addition to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and microembolic disorder, a high proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 develop lymphopenia and cytokine storm disorder. This review explores the underlying mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, especially the immune mechanisms, which could be potentially used as therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.