Eur J Clin Invest. 2021 Mar 3:e13531. doi: 10.1111/eci.13531. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a strong prognostic marker in several inflammatory, respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but has not been studied in COVID-19 yet.
METHODS: This prospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 infection was conducted from June 6th to November 26th , 2020 in different wards of a tertiary hospital. MR-proANP, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitive cardiac troponin I levels on admission were collected and tested for their association with disease severity and 28-day mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 213 eligible patients with COVID-19 were included in the final analyses of whom 13.2% (n = 28) died within 28-days. Median levels of MR-proANP at admission were significantly higher in non-survivors (307 pmol/L IQR, [161 - 532] vs 75 pmol/L [IQR, 43 - 153], P < 0.001) compared to survivors and increased with disease severity and level of hypoxemia. The area under the ROC-curve for MR-proANP predicting 28-day mortality was 0.832 (95% CI 0.753 - 0.912, P < 0.001). An optimal cut-off point of 160 pmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 76.2%. MR-proANP was a significant predictor of 28-day mortality independent of clinical confounders, co-morbidities and established prognostic markers of COVID-19 (HR 2.77, 95% CI 1.21 - 6.37; P = 0.016), while NT-proBNP failed to independently predict 28-day mortality and had a numerically lower AUC compared to MR-proANP.
CONCLUSION: Higher levels of MR-proANP at admission are associated with disease severity of COVID-19 and act as a powerful and independent prognostic marker of 28-day mortality.