Cardiac Injury in COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Link to article at PubMed

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1321:325-333. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_29.


Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for the current pandemic which has already resulted in considerable mortality worldwide. This systematic review was conducted to summarize the results of the published articles assessing the incidence of heart diseases in patients infected with COVID-19. The electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, Science Direct, and ProQuest were used to search for potentially relevant articles. Articles published from Dec 2019 to April 2020 were included. All cross-sectional, retrospective or prospective observational cohort and case-control studies were selected which reported the incidence or prevalence of myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Based on the inclusion criteria, 12 articles were selected. The incidence of cardiac injury was reported in 8 articles and 8 articles focused on the cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19 infection. The incidence of new cardiac injury was reported to be 7.2-77% in live and dead patients, respectively. The results showed that patients with cardiac injury had worse outcomes including higher mortality than those without cardiac injury. The most common cardiac injury outcomes were shock and malignant arrhythmias. The most common radiographic findings in patients with cardiac injury were multiple mottling and ground-glass opacities in the lungs (64.6%). A significant number of patients with cardiac injury required noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46.3%) or invasive mechanical ventilation (22.0%). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was seen in 58.5%, acute kidney injury in 8.5%, electrolyte disturbances in 15.9%, hypoproteinemia in 13.4%, and coagulation disorders in 7.3% of patients with cardiac injuries. In addition, survival days were negatively correlated with cardiac troponin I levels (r = -0.42, 95%, p = 0.005). The results of this review showed that myocardial injury in patients with COVID 19 has a poor prognosis. Hence, cardiac investigation and management in these patients are crucial.

PMID:33656737 | DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_29

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