Prognostic value of lactate levels and lactate clearance in sepsis and septic shock with initial hyperlactatemia: A retrospective cohort study according to the Sepsis-3 definitions

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Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Feb 19;100(7):e24835. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000024835.

ABSTRACT

The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines suggest guiding resuscitation to normalize lactate levels in patients with sepsis-associated hyperlactatemia as a marker of tissue hypoperfusion. This study evaluated the prognostic value of lactate levels and lactate clearance for 30-day mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock diagnosed in the emergency department.We performed a retrospective cohort study of sepsis patients with initial lactate levels of ≥2 mmol/L. All patients met the Sepsis-3 definitions. The prognostic value of 6-hour lactate levels, 6-hour lactate clearance, 6-hour lactate metrics (≥2 mmol/L), and lactate clearance metrics (<10%, <20%, and <30%) was evaluated. We compared the sensitivity and specificity between metrics.Of the 363 sepsis and septic shock patients, 148 died (30-day mortality: 40.8%). Nonsurvivors had significantly higher 6-hour lactate levels and lower 6-hour lactate clearance than those of survivors. Six-hour lactate levels and 6-hour lactate clearance were associated with 30-day mortality after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 1.191 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.097-1.294] and 0.989 [0.983-0.995], respectively). Six-hour lactate levels had better prognostic value than 6-hour lactate clearance (area under the curve, 0.720 [95% CI, 0.670-0.765] vs 0.656 [0.605-0.705]; P = .02). Six-hour lactate levels of ≥3.5 mmol/L and 6-hour lactate clearance of <24.4% were the optimal cut-off value in predicting the 30-day mortality. The prognostic value of 6-hour lactate metrics and 6-hour lactate clearance metrics did not differ. Six-hour lactate levels (≥2 mmol/L) had the highest sensitivity (89.2%).Six-hour lactate levels proved to be more accurate in predicting 30-day mortality than 6-hour lactate clearance and initial lactate levels.

PMID:33607851 | PMC:PMC7899836 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000024835

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