Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Feb 18. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1723952. Online ahead of print.
There are currently more than 7 million patients taking a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), with more new prescriptions per year than warfarin. Despite impressive efficacy and safety data for the treatment of venous thromboembolism, patients with obesity or advanced renal impairment represented a small portion of the patients enrolled in the phase 3 clinical trials. Therefore, to evaluate the potential use of DOACs in these special populations, clinicians need to have an understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these agents in these settings. Since data from randomized controlled trials are limited, data from observational trials are helpful in gaining comfort with the use of DOACs in these special populations. Selecting the appropriate dose for each agent is imperative in achieving optimal patient outcomes. We provide an extensive review of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, phase 3 clinical trials, and observational studies on the use of DOACs in patients with advanced renal impairment, obesity, or other weight-related special populations to provide clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of the data for optimal drug and dose selection.