Characteristics and outcome of acute heart failure in infective endocarditis: focus on cardiogenic shock

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 9:ciab098. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab098. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of cardiogenic shock (CS) on endocarditis are lacking. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of endocarditis patients presenting with acute heart failure (AHF), particularly of those developing CS.

METHODS: Prospectively collected cohort from 35 Spanish centers (2008-2018). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for developing CS and predictors of mortality.

RESULTS: Amongst 4,856 endocarditis patients, 1,652 (34%) had AHF and 244 (5%) CS. Compared to patients without AHF and AHF but no CS, patients with CS presented higher rates of surgery (40.5%, 52.5% and 68%,p<.001) and in-hospital mortality (16.3%,39.1%, and 52.5%). Compared to patients with septic shock, CS patients presented higher rates of surgery (42.5% vs. 68%, p<.001), and lower rates of in-hospital and 1-year mortality (62.3% vs. 52.5%,p.008;and 65.3% vs. 57.4%,p.030). Severe aortic and mitral regurgitation (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.82-3.35 and OR 3.03, 95%CI 2.26-4.07, both p<.001), left-ventricle ejection fraction<60% (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.22-2.40, p.002), heart block (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.41-3.47, p.001), tachyarrhythmias (OR 5.07,95%CI 3.13-8.19, p<.001) and acute kidney failure (OR 2.29, 95%CI 1.73-3.03,p<.001) were associated to a higher likelihood of developing CS. Prosthetic endocarditis (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.06-3.88, p.032), S. aureus (OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.16-8.30, p.024), tachyarrhythmias (OR 3.09,95%CI 1.50-10.13, p.005), and not performing cardiac surgery (OR 11.40, 95%CI 4.83-26.90, p<.001) were associated to a higher risk of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Acute heart failure is common among patients with endocarditis. Cardiogenic shock is associated to very high mortality and should be promptly identified and assessed for cardiac surgery.

PMID:33560404 | DOI:10.1093/cid/ciab098

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