Acute kidney injury as a risk factor for mortality in oncological patients receiving check-point inhibitors

Link to article at PubMed

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021 Feb 6:gfab034. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfab034. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have drastically improved metastatic cancer outcomes. However, immunotherapy is associated to multiple toxicities, including acute renal injury (AKI). Data about CPI related AKI are limited. Our aim was to determine risk factors for CPI related AKI, as well as its clinical characteristics and its impact on mortality in patients undergoing immunotherapy.

METHODS: All patients under CPI at our center between March 2018 and May 2019, and with a follow up until April 2020, were included. Demographical, clinical data and laboratory results were collected. AKI was defined according to KDIGO guidelines. We performed a logistic regression model to identify independent risk factors for AKI and actuarial survival analysis to establish risk factors for mortality in this population.

RESULTS: 759 patients were included, with a median age of 64 years. 59% were men and baseline median creatinine was 0.80 mg/dL. Most frequent malignance was lung cancer and 56% were receiving anti-PD1. 15.5% developed AKI during the follow-up. Age and baseline kidney function were identified as independent risk factors for AKI related ICI. At the end of follow-up, 52.3% patients had died. Type of cancer (not melanoma, lung or urogenital malignance), type of CPI (not CTLA4, PD-1, PD-L1 or their combination) and the presence of an episode of AKI were identified as risk factors for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: 15.5% of patients under immunotherapy presented AKI. A single AKI episode was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in these patients and age and baseline renal function were risks factors for the development of AKI.

PMID:33547795 | DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfab034

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