Adv Clin Exp Med. 2021 Jan;30(1):101-107. doi: 10.17219/acem/130604.
The virus SARS-CoV-2 commonly causes self-resolving, flu-like illnesses in the majority of patients, but a critical illness can be seen in 5% of cases - especially in the elderly population or in patients with multiple comorbidities. When COVID-19 is severe, it can cause pneumonia and hypoxemic respiratory failure, and can progress to viremia involving multiple organ systems. It causes significant cytopenia, mainly severe lymphopenia, and excessive exhaustion of CD8+ T cells, resulting in an immunocompromised state and cytokine storm. Furthermore, COVID-19 can commonly be complicated with acute thrombotic events, including venous thromboembolism, acute stroke, acute myocardial infarction, clotting of hemodialysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) catheters, and acute limb ischemia. This makes SARS-COV-2 a unique virus with an undiscovered pathophysiology. Therefore, patients with COVID-19 need close monitoring of their symptoms and laboratory parameters, and early hospitalization and treatment in severe cases. Early identification of severe cases and the abovementioned complications of COVID-19 could decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. In the study, we summarize what is currently known about the hematological manifestations and complications of COVID-19.