Multiple myeloma

Link to article at PubMed

Lancet. 2021 Jan 30;397(10272):410-427. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00135-5.


Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological malignancy in high-income countries, and typically starts as asymptomatic precursor conditions-either monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smouldering multiple myeloma-in which initiating genetic abnormalities, such as hyperdiploidy and translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain, are already present. The introduction of immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, and CD38-targeting antibodies has extended survival, but ultimately the majority of patients will die from their disease, and some from treatment-related complications. Disease progression and subsequent relapses are characterised by subclonal evolution and increasingly resistant disease. Patients with multiple myeloma usually have hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, or osteolytic bone lesions-and a detailed diagnostic investigation is needed to differentiate between symptomatic multiple myeloma that requires treatment, and precursor states. Risk stratification using both patient-specific (eg, performance status) and disease-specific (eg, presence of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities) is important for prognosis and to define the best treatment strategy. Current research strategies include the use of minimal residual disease assays to guide therapy, refining immunotherapeutic approaches, and intercepting disease early in smouldering multiple myeloma.

PMID:33516340 | DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00135-5

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