2021 Jul 18. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.
Opioid-induced endocrinopathy (OIE) is a condition that affects more Americans than other common comorbid conditions such as heart disease and diabetes combined. It is an important and often unrecognized cause of endocrinopathy, and can result in various clinical manifestations such as sexual dysfunction, amenorrhea, osteoporosis, fatigue, decreased muscle mass, gynecomastia, anemia, low testosterone, cortisol deficiency, and depression. It is essential to increase awareness of OIE and that the adverse effects of long-term opioid therapy such as OIE are considered and not overlooked in the treatment of chronic pain, and that benefits of chronic opioid therapy, in fact, outweigh the potential risks and side effects.