Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Link to article at PubMed

2021 Aug 14. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.


Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with the rapid withdrawal of dopaminergic medications. NMS has been associated with virtually every neuroleptic agent but is more commonly reported with the typical antipsychotics like haloperidol and fluphenazine. Classic clinical characteristics include mental status changes, fever, muscle rigidity, and autonomic instability. While uncommon, NMS remains an important part of the differential diagnosis of fever and mental status changes because it requires early diagnosis and treatment to prevent significant mortality and death. Treatment involves immediately discontinuing the offending agent, aggressive supportive care to manage and prevent complications, and pharmacologic therapy in severe cases. The empiric medications most frequently used for refractory NMS include bromocriptine mesylate, a dopamine agonist, and dantrolene sodium, a muscle relaxant. If the syndrome is due to the rapid withdrawal of dopaminergic medication, rapid re-institution of the medication may improve symptoms.

PMID:29489248 | Bookshelf:NBK482282

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