2021 May 18. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV infection) have been noted to have various forms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Neuropsychiatric illnesses include symptoms of both cognitive disorders as well as mood and anxiety symptoms. In the past, before the advent of antiretroviral treatment, several neuropsychiatric disorders remained untreated, resulting in a large mortality rate. Most of these disorders stemmed from untreated infectious diseases secondary to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) like toxoplasmosis and encephalitis. The decline in neurocognitive disorders notably came hand in hand with the advent of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). Combination treatment for HIV was developed around 1996, and since then, HIV-related neuropsychiatric disorders started to decline.