Diabet Med. 2020 Dec 29:e14509. doi: 10.1111/dme.14509. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has continued to have a devastating impact on health worldwide. There has been a rapid evolution of evidence, establishing an increased risk of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and concurrent COVID-19. The objective of this review is to explore the current evidence for inpatient assessment and management of diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight areas requiring further exploration.
METHODS: A literature search of databases was conducted to November 2020 using variations on keywords SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, SARS, MERS, and diabetes. Information relating to the impact of diabetes on severity of COVID-19 infection, the impact of COVID-19 infection on diabetes management and diabetes related complications was integrated to create a narrative review.
DISCUSSION: People with diabetes and COVID-19 are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is important that people with both known and previously unrecognised diabetes and COVID-19 be promptly identified and assessed during acute illness, with close monitoring for clinical deterioration or complications. People with diabetes may require titration or alteration of their glycaemic management due to the potential for worse outcomes with hyperglycaemia and COVID-19 infection. Comprehensive discharge planning is vital to optimise ongoing glycaemic management.
CONCLUSION: Further understanding of the risk of adverse outcomes and optimisation of glycaemic management for people with diabetes during COVID-19 is required to improve outcomes. Increased glucose and ketone monitoring, substitution of insulin for some oral antihyperglycemic medications, and careful monitoring for complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis should be considered.