Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021 Jan 25;36(2):231-236. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfaa312.
Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis have led to continued improvement in survival and prognosis over the course of the last 4 decades. Nevertheless, the most acute and severe disease manifestations, including severe kidney disease and alveolar hemorrhage, continue to be associated with increased early mortality from disease activity or treatment complications as well as risk for the development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), which in turn directly affects the overall prognosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Plasma exchange (PLEX) has long been proposed and used for these most severe disease manifestations under the assumption that its effects are swift and supported by our understanding of the pathogenic role of ANCA. Yet convincing evidence of a beneficial effect of PLEX in ANCA-associated vasculitis has been lacking, as early studies and small trials have generated conflicting results. The controversy regarding PLEX has been accentuated recently as the largest randomized controlled trial ever conducted in ANCA-associated vasculitis, the Plasma Exchange and Glucocorticoids in Severe ANCA-associated Vasculitis trial, which was specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of PLEX in patients with severe renal disease or alveolar hemorrhage, failed to show a difference in the combined primary outcome measure of death or ESKD in patients who received PLEX versus those who did not. In light of these disappointing results, we herein review the currently available data on PLEX for ANCA-associated vasculitis and explain why we believe that these data no longer support the use of PLEX in ANCA-associated vasculitis.