PLoS One. 2020 Dec 28;15(12):e0244629. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244629. eCollection 2020.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to compare the predictive accuracy of four recently established outcome models of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) published between January 1st and May 1st 2020.
METHODS: We used data obtained from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) between January 1st, 2020, and May 1st 2020 as an external validation cohort. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Areas under the ROC (AUC) curves were used to evaluate discrimination of the four predictive models. The Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness-of-fit test and calibration curves assessed applicability of the models to individual cases.
RESULTS: During the study period, 1634 unique patients were identified. The mean age of the study cohort was 68.8±13.4 years. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease were the most common comorbidities. The crude hospital mortality was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.31). Evaluation of the predictive models showed an AUC range from 0.63 (95% CI 0.60-0.66) to 0.72 (95% CI 0.69-0.74) indicating fair to poor discrimination across all models. There were no significant differences among the AUC values of the four prognostic systems. All models calibrated poorly by either overestimated or underestimated hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: All the four prognostic models examined in this study portend high-risk bias. The performance of these scores needs to be interpreted with caution in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.