Clin Imaging. 2020 Dec 8;73:86-95. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.11.054. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Limited data is available addressing gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We reviewed the clinical and radiologic features of GI ischemia and its related complications in thirty-one COVID-19 patients reported in literature.
METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using a search strategy on all studies published from January 1, 2020, to June 13, 2020, and updated on September 6, 2020, on databases from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Every study with at least one presentation of COVID-19-related GI ischemia complication and one GI imaging finding was included.
RESULTS: In total, twenty-two studies and thirty-one patients with the mean age of 59 ± 12.7 (age range: 28-80) years old were included, of which 23 (74.2%) patients were male, 7 (22.5%) female, and one unknown gender. The significant GI imaging findings include mesenteric arterial or venous thromboembolism, followed by small bowel ischemia. Nine patients (29%) presented with arterial compromise due to superior mesenteric thromboembolism, resulting in bowel ischemia. Also, 6 patients (19.3%) demonstrated occlusive thrombosis of the portal system and superior mesenteric vein. More than two-thirds of patients (20, 64.5%) required laparotomy and bowel resection. Eventually, five (16.1%) patients were discharged, of whom four cases (12.9%) readmitted. Five (16.1%) patients remained ICU hospitalized at the report time and 12 (38.7%) patients died.
CONCLUSION: Macrovascular arterial/venous thrombosis is identified in almost half of COVID-19 patients with bowel ischemia. Overall mortality in COVID-19 patients with GI ischemia and radiologically evident mesenteric thrombotic occlusion was 38.7% and 40%, retrospectively.