JAAPA. 2021 Jan 1;34(1):10-13. doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000723908.23506.85.
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is one of the most common oncologic emergencies, occurring when tumor cell contents are rapidly released into the bloodstream. This release of cellular contents, including uric acid, phosphate, and potassium, can rapidly overwhelm the body's homeostasis mechanisms, leading to renal failure, seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, or death. With an estimated 1.8 million new diagnoses of cancer projected in 2020 and an increase in the use of targeted agents for treatment, healthcare providers must be able to recognize, diagnose, and manage patients presenting with TLS.