Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Sep 11:S0939-4753(20)30390-2. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.09.004. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging data have linked the presence of cardiac injury with a worse prognosis in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, available data cannot clearly characterize the correlation between cardiac injury and COVID-19. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of recent studies to 1) explore the prevalence of cardiac injury in different types of COVID-19 patients and 2) evaluate the association between cardiac injury and worse prognosis (severe disease, admission to ICU, and mortality) in patients with COVID-19.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Literature search was conducted through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and MedRxiv databases. A meta-analysis was performed with Stata 14.0. A fixed-effects model was used if the I2 values ≤ 50%, otherwise the random-effects model was performed. The prevalence of cardiac injury was 19% (95% CI: 0.15-0.22, and p < 0.001) in total COVID-19 patients, 36% (95% CI: 0.25-0.47, and p < 0.001) in severe COVID-19 patients, and 48% (95% CI: 0.30-0.66, and p < 0.001) in non-survivors. Furthermore, cardiac injury was found to be associated with a significant increase in the risk of poor outcomes with a pooled effect size (ES) of 8.46 (95% CI: 3.76-19.06, and p = 0.062), severe disease with an ES of 3.54 (95% CI: 2.25-5.58, and p < 0.001), admission to ICU with an ES of 5.03 (95% CI: 2.69-9.39, and p < 0.001), and mortality with an ES of 4.99 (95% CI: 3.38-7.37, and p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cardiac injury was greatly increased in COVID-19 patients, particularly in patients with severe disease and non-survivors. COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury are more likely to be associated with poor outcomes, severity of disease, admission to ICU, and mortality.