2020 Nov 21. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan–.
Sickle cell anemia is the most severe form of sickle cell disease and is the homozygous state for hemoglobin S. Sickle cell anemia is prevalent in Africa, the Middle East, and parts of India. It is common in geographical areas where malaria is widespread. Hemoglobin in most individuals is present in soluble form. However, in sickle cell disease, hemoglobin precipitates as insoluble crystals which lead to an abnormal shape and size of RBCs with subsequent phagocytosis of the effected corpuscles.,,
The disorder typically affects Africans and people of Mediterranean ancestry. Carriers of the sickle cell trait do not suffer from the disease.