Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 21;99(3):115256. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115256. Online ahead of print.
We retrospectively evaluated whether initial procalcitonin (PCT) levels can predict early antibiotic treatment failure (ATF) in patients with gram-negative bloodstream infections (GN-BSI) caused by urinary tract infections from January 2018 to November 2019. Early ATF was defined as the following: (1) hemodynamically unstable or febrile at Day 3; (2) the need for mechanical ventilation or continuous renal replacement therapy at Day 3; (3) patients who died within 3 days (date of blood culture: Day 0). The study included 189 patients; 42 showed early ATF. Independent risk factors for early ATF were initial admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio: 7.735, 95% confidence interval: 2.567-23.311; P < 0.001) and PCT levels ≥30 ng/mL (odds ratio: 5.413, 95% confidence interval: 2.188-13.388; P < 0.001). Antibiotic factors were not associated with early ATF. Initial PCT levels may be helpful to predict early ATF in these patients.