Am Heart J. 2021 Feb;232:10-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2020.10.064. Epub 2020 Oct 24.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use is associated with improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. However, the magnitude and potential heterogeneity of effect across patients with varying types of cardiometabolic and kidney disease is unclear. To examine the effect of SGLT2i on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and independent of T2DM status, among patients with heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease.
METHOD: Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and scientific conferences were searched from inception till September 24, 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing cardiovascular and kidney outcomes between SGLT2i and placebo. Random effects hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS: Eight trials with a combined 59,747 patients were included. In the overall population, SGLT2i reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.78-0.91]), cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI [0.76-0.93]) hospitalization for HF (HR 0.69; 95% CI [0.64-0.74]), myocardial infarction (HR 0.91; 95% CI [0.84-0.99]), and composite kidney outcome (HR 0.62; 95% CI [0.56-0.70]). There was no significant effect on the risk of stroke (HR 0.98; 95% CI [0.86-1.11]). Results were consistent across subgroups stratified by diabetes and HF status. SGLT2i use was not associated with a greater risk of hypoglycemia (OR 0.92; 95% CI [0.84-1.01]) or amputation (OR 1.25; 95% CI [0.97-1.62]). There were 64 diabetic ketoacidosis events with SGLT2i use and 18 with placebo (OR 2.86; 95% CI [1.39-5.86]).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cardiometabolic and kidney disease, SGLT2i improved cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, regardless of T2DM, HF, and/or CKD status. The magnitude of risk reduction was largest for hospitalization for HF and progression of kidney disease, more modest for mortality and MI and absent for stroke.