Annu Rev Pathol. 2020 Nov 16. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-032520-024949. Online ahead of print.
Helicobacter pylori is the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease. The infection has been implicated in more than 75% of duodenal ulcer cases and 17% of gastric ulcer cases. H. pylori has been classified as a human carcinogen, since it is the main cause of distal gastric adenocarcinoma and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Evidence also links H. pylori with extragastric conditions including iron deficiency anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and vitamin B12 deficiency. Studies indicate that H. pylori may be protective against other conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., reflux esophagitis and related pathologies) and elsewhere in the body (e.g., asthma). The infection is asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases; more serious outcomes occur in only 10-15% of infected individuals. Despite extensive research over the past 3 decades, there is no effective vaccine, and the circumstances leading to disease development remain unclear. In addition, there is now a growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in H. pylori. This review discusses these important issues. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 16 is January 25, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.